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The effect of two sock fabrics on physiological parameters associated with blister incidence
Cornelis P. Bogerd, Ivo Rechsteiner, Benno Wüst, René M. Rossi, Paul A. Brühwiler, 2011, original scientific article

Abstract: The goal of the present study was to investigate physiological effects, mainly at the level of the foot, of two sock fabrics with distinct moisture properties. Twelve participants wore two different socks, one on each foot. The following two sock types were usedČ PP: 99.6% polypropylene and 0.4% elastane and BLEND: 50% Merino wool, 33% polypropylene, and 17% polyamide. The participants walked three times on a treadmill at 5 km h-1, with no gradient for the first and third phase and a 10% upward inclination for the second walking phase. The microclimate temperature between the boot and foot was measured during walking. Preceding and following the walking phases, additional measurements were carried out at the level of the foot, i.e. skin temperature and skin hydration on three locations and skin friction between the posterior surface of the calcaneus and a glass plate. In addition, the moisture absorption of boots and socks was determined. Differences between the sock fabrics were found for weight gain and microclimate temperature: (i) PP tended to hold less water compared to BLEND, (ii) the bootćs microclimate temperature resulted in larger values for BLEND measured at the dorsal surface at the level of the third metatarsal, and (iii) warmer microclimates of the boot were measured for PP compared to BLEND at the distal anterior end of the tibia. The established differences in moisture behavior of both socks did not result in detectable differences in parameters measured on the skin of the foot
Found in: osebi
Keywords: footwear, friction, blister, walking, sock
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1476; Downloads: 11
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4.
Heat loss and moisture retention variations of boot membranes and sock fabrics
Cornelis P. Bogerd, Paul A. Brühwiler, René M. Rossi, 2012, original scientific article

Abstract: Heat loss and moisture retention properties of footwear were characterized using a walking thermal manikin foot. The same type of military boot was equipped with different membranes: (i) GORE TEX with IQ TEX, (ii) halve OUTDRY, (iii) full OUTDRY, and (iv) OUTDRY with IQ TEX. In a separate experiment a single boot type was used to evaluate four different sock fabrics: (i) wool/polypropylene, (ii) polypropylene, (iii) polypropylene/polyamide, and (iv) wool/polyamide. Both boot membranes and sock fabrics were assessed under three conditions: (i) standstill no sweating, (ii) walking no sweating, and (iii) walking and sweating. The walking rate was set at 15 step min-1 and the sweat rates were 9 g h-1 and 12 g h-1, for boot membrane and sock fabric measurements, respectively. Moisture retention was assessed by weighing the footwear components before and after each measurement. GORE TEX with IQ TEX resulted in a higher heat loss during walking without sweating compared to the other membranes (p=0.017). GORE TEX with IQ TEX retained more moisture in the sock compared to the other membranes (p < 0.001) but also retained more moisture in the inlay sole compared to halve OUTDRY (p=0.015). No differences in heat loss were found among sock fabrics, while wool/polyamide retained more moisture compared to polypropylenežpolyamide (p=0.036). Furthermore, a moisture vapour transmission rate of 61.2 +- 6.6 g m-2 h-1 was calculated for all sweating conditions. Finally, the measurements suggest that no pumping effect takes place in the measured footwear under the present conditions. Relevance to industry: Understanding heat loss and moisture retention of footwear is necessary for optimization of footwear for blister incidence and (thermal) comfort
Found in: osebi
Keywords: Heat loss, Moisture retention, Hiking, footwear, marching, sock, fabric, boot, manikins
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1694; Downloads: 25
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Radiant heat gain and bicycle helmets
René M. Rossi, Simon Annaheim, Cornelis P. Bogerd, 2012, published scientific conference contribution abstract

Found in: osebi
Keywords: bicycle helmets, headgear, heat transfer, radiant heat transfer
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1306; Downloads: 28
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