1. The Terwilliger algebra of a distance-regular graph of negative typeŠtefko Miklavič, 2009, original scientific article Abstract: Let ▫$\Gamma$▫ denote a distance-regular graph with diameter ▫$D \ge 3$▫. Assume ▫$\Gamma$▫ has classical parameters ▫$(D,b,\alpha,\beta)▫$ with ▫$b < -1$▫. Let ▫$X$▫ denote the vertex set of ▫$\Gamma$▫ and let ▫$A \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X(\mathbb{C})$▫ denote the adjacency matrix of ▫$\Gamma$▫. Fix ▫$x \in X$▫ and let $A^\ast \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X(\mathbb{C})$ denote the corresponding dual adjacency matrix. Let ▫$T$▫ denote the subalgebra of ${\mathrm{Mat}}_X(\mathbb{C})$ generated by ▫$A,A^\ast$▫. We call ▫$T$▫ the Terwilliger algebra of ▫$\Gamma$▫ with respect to ▫$x$▫. We show that up to isomorphism there exist exactly two irreducible ▫$T$▫-modules with endpoint 1; their dimensions are ▫$D$▫ and ▫$2D-2$▫. For these ▫$T$▫-modules we display a basis consisting of eigenvectors for ▫$A^\ast$▫, and for each basis we give the action of ▫$A$▫. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: distance-regular graph, negative type, Terwilliger algebra Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1709; Downloads: 80 Full text (0,00 KB) |
2. On bipartite Q-polynomial distance-regular graphs with c [sub] 2 [equal] 1Štefko Miklavič, 2007, original scientific article Abstract: Let ▫$\Gamma$▫ denote a bipartite ▫$Q$▫-polynomial distance-regular graph with diameter ▫$d \ge 3$▫, valency ▫$k \ge 3$▫ and intersection number ▫$c_2=1$▫. We show that ▫$\Gamma$▫ has a certain equitable partition of its vertex set which involves ▫$4d-4$▫ cells. We use this partition to show that the intersection numbers of ▫$\Gamma$▫ satisfy the following divisibility conditions: (I) ▫$c_{i+1}-1$▫ divides ▫$c_i(c_i-1)$▫ for ▫$2 \le i \le d-1$▫, and (II) ▫$b_{i-1}-1$▫ divides ▫$b_i(b_i-1)$▫ for ▫$1 \le i \le d-1$▫. Using these divisibility conditions we show that ▫$\Gamma$▫ does not exist if ▫$d=4$▫. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: mathematics, grah theory, distance-regular graphs, ▫$Q$▫-polynomial property, equitable partitions Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1870; Downloads: 15 Full text (0,00 KB) |
3. Distance-balanced graphs: Symmetry conditionsKlavdija Kutnar, Aleksander Malnič, Dragan Marušič, Štefko Miklavič, 2006, original scientific article Abstract: A graph ▫$X$▫ is said to be distance-balanced if for any edge ▫$uv$▫ of ▫$X$▫, the number of vertices closer to ▫$u$▫ than to ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices closer to ▫$v$▫ than to ▫$u$▫. A graph ▫$X$▫ is said to be strongly distance-balanced if for any edge ▫$uv$▫ of ▫$X$▫ and any integer ▫$k$▫, the number of vertices at distance ▫$k$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$k+1$▫ from ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices at distance ▫$k+1$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$k$▫ from ▫$v$▫. Exploring the connection between symmetry properties of graphs and the metric property of being (strongly) distance-balanced is the main theme of this article. That a vertex-transitive graph is necessarily strongly distance-balanced and thus also distance-balanced is an easy observation. With only a slight relaxation of the transitivity condition, the situation changes drastically: there are infinite families of semisymmetric graphs (that is, graphs which are edge-transitive, but not vertex-transitive) which are distance-balanced, but there are also infinite families of semisymmetric graphs which are not distance-balanced. Results on the distance-balanced property in product graphs prove helpful in obtaining these constructions. Finally, a complete classification of strongly distance-balanced graphs is given for the following infinite families of generalized Petersen graphs: GP▫$(n,2)$▫, GP▫$(5k+1,k)$▫, GP▫$(3k 3,k)$▫, and GP▫$(2k+2,k)$▫. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: graph theory, graph, distance-balanced graphs, vertex-transitive, semysimmetric, generalized Petersen graph Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1962; Downloads: 58 Full text (0,00 KB) |
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5. Q-polynomial distance-regular graphs with a [sub] 1 [equal] 0 and a [sub] 2 [not equal] 0Štefko Miklavič, 2008, original scientific article Abstract: Let ▫$\Gamma$▫ denote a ▫$Q$▫-polynomial distance-regular graph with diameter ▫$D \ge 3$▫ and intersection numbers ▫$a_1=0$▫, ▫$a_2 \ne 0$▫. Let ▫$X$▫ denote the vertex set of ▫$\Gamma$▫ and let ▫$A \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X ({\mathbb{C}})$▫ denote the adjacency matrix of ▫$\Gamma$▫. Fix ▫$x \in X$▫ and let denote $A^\ast \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X ({\mathbb{C}})$ the corresponding dual adjacency matrix. Let ▫$T$▫ denote the subalgebra of ▫$A{\mathrm{Mat}}_X ({\mathbb{C}})$▫ generated by ▫$A$▫, ▫$A^\ast$▫. We call ▫$T$▫ the Terwilliger algebra of ▫$\Gamma$▫ with respect to ▫$x$▫. We show that up to isomorphism there exists a unique irreducible ▫$T$▫-module ▫$W$▫ with endpoint 1. We show that ▫$W$▫ has dimension ▫$2D-2$▫. We display a basis for ▫$W$▫ which consists of eigenvectors for ▫$A^\ast$▫. We display the action of ▫$A$▫ on this basis. We show that ▫$W$▫ appears in the standard module of ▫$\Gamma$▫ with multiplicity ▫$k-1$▫, where ▫$k$▫ is the valency of ▫$\Gamma$▫. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: mathematics, graph theory, adjacency matrix, distance-regular graph, Terwilliger algebra Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1605; Downloads: 9 Full text (0,00 KB) |
6. Leonard triples and hypercubesŠtefko Miklavič, 2007, original scientific article Abstract: Let ▫$V$▫ denote a vector space over ▫$\mathbb{C}$▫ with finite positive dimension. By a Leonard triple on ▫$V$▫ we mean an ordered triple of linear operators on ▫$V$▫ such that for each of these operators there exists a basis of ▫$V$▫ with respect to which the matrix representing that operator is diagonal and the matrices representing the other two operators are irreducible tridiagonal. Let ▫$D$▫ denote a positive integer and let ▫${\mathcal{Q}}_D$▫ denote the graph of the ▫$D$▫-dimensional hypercube. Let ▫$X$ denote the vertex set of ▫${\mathcal{Q}}_D$▫ and let ▫$A \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X ({\mathbb{C}})$▫ denote the adjacency matrix of ▫${\mathcal{Q}}_D$▫. Fix ▫$x \in X$▫ and let ▫$A^\ast \in {\mathrm{Mat}}_X({\mathbb{C}})$▫ denote the corresponding dual adjacency matrix. Let ▫$T$▫ denote the subalgebra of ▫${\mathrm{Mat}}_X({\mathbb{C}})$ generated by ▫$A,A^\ast$▫. We refer to ▫$T$▫ as the Terwilliger algebra of ▫${\mathcal{Q}}_D$▫ with respect to ▫$x$▫. The matrices ▫$A$▫ and ▫$A^\ast$▫ are related by the fact that ▫$2iA = A^\ast A^\varepsilon - A^\varepsilon A^\ast$▫ and ▫$2iA^\ast = A^\varepsilon A - AA^\varepsilon$▫, where ▫$2iA^\varepsilon = AA^\ast - A^\ast A$▫ and ▫$i^2 = -1$▫. We show that the triple ▫$A$▫, ▫$A^\ast$▫, ▫$A^\varepsilon$▫ acts on each irreducible ▫$T$▫-module as a Leonard triple. We give a detailed description of these Leonard triples. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: ...mathematics, graph theory, Leonard triple, distance-regular graph, hypercube, Terwilliger algebra... Keywords: mathematics, graph theory, Leonard triple, distance-regular graph, hypercube, Terwilliger algebra Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1627; Downloads: 67 Full text (0,00 KB) |
7. On the connectivity of bipartite distance-balanced graphsŠtefko Miklavič, Primož Šparl, 2012, original scientific article Abstract: A connected graph ▫$\varGamma$▫ is said to be distance-balanced whenever for any pair of adjacent vertices ▫$u,v$▫ of ▫$\varGamma$▫ the number of vertices closer to ▫$u$▫ than to ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices closer to ▫$v$▫ than to ▫$u$▫. In [K. Handa, Bipartite graphs with balanced ▫$(a,b)$▫-partitions, Ars Combin. 51 (1999), 113-119] Handa asked whether every bipartite distance-balanced graph, that is not a cycle, is 3-connected. In this paper the Handa question is answered in the negative. Moreover, we show that a minimal bipartite distance-balanced graph, that is not a cycle and is not 3-connected, has 18 vertices and is unique. In addition, we give a complete classification of non-3-connected bipartite distance-balanced graphs for which the minimal distance between two vertices in a 2-cut is three. All such graphs are regular and for each ▫$k \geq 3$▫ there exists an infinite family of such graphs which are ▫$k$▫-regular.Furthermore, we determine a number of structural properties that a bipartite distance-balanced graph, which is not 3-connected, must have. As an application, we give a positive answer to the Handa question for the subfamily of bipartite strongly distance-balanced graphs. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: graph theory, connected graphs, connectivity, distance-balanced graphs, bipartite graphs Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1447; Downloads: 55 Full text (0,00 KB) |
8. Large sets of long distance equienergetic graphsDragan Stevanović, 2009, original scientific article Abstract: Distance energy of a graph is a recent energy-type invariant, defined as the absolute deviation of the eigenvalues of the distance matrix of the graph. Two graphs of the same order are said to be distance equienergetic if they have equal distance energy, while they have distinct spectra of their distance matrices. Examples of pairs of distance equienergetic graphs appear in the literature already, but most of them have diameter two only. We describe here the distance spectrum of a special composition of regular graphs, and, as an application, we show that for any ▫$n \ge 3$▫, there exists a set of ▫$n + 1$▫ distance equienergetic graphs which have order ▫$6n$▫ and diameter ▫$n - 1$▫ each. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: graph theory, distance spectrum, distance energy, join, regular graphs Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1544; Downloads: 71 Full text (0,00 KB) |
9. The status of a rare phylogeographic lineage of the vulnerable European souslik Spermophilus citellus, endemic to central MacedoniaBoris Kryštufek, Peter Glasnović, Svetozar Petkovski, 2012, short scientific article Abstract: The conversion of grasslands for agriculture has triggered a serious decline of the European ground squirrel or souslik Spermophilus citellus, categorized as Vulnerable on the IUCN Red List since 1996. The Jakupica phylogeographic lineage of central Macedonia is the smallest of the three major evolutionary lines of the European souslik. This lineage is an important reservoir of within-species diversity and should be regarded as an independent unit for conservation management purposes. It is endemic to Mount Jakupica, where it lives in mountain pastures at 1,500-2,250m altitude. The total area occupied by sousliks (884 ha) is fragmented and 94% of individuals occur in four colonies. Densities (0.8-5.5 adults ha-1) are lower than those reported elsewhere for the species, with the total population probably ,2,000 adults. One large colony, reportedly of c. 1,000 sousliks, was decimated in 2007 by a catastrophic fire and had still not recovered bz 2010. A steady decline in livestock grazing, together with the predicted advance of the tree line as a consequence of climate change, will probably reduce the optimal habitat for the souslik and negatively affect population fitness. Monitoring needs to be implemented, at least for the largest colonies, to provide early warning of any declines Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: ...Spermophilus citellus, souslik, European souslik, density, endemic, distance sampling, fragmentation, Macedonia, ... Keywords: Spermophilus citellus, souslik, European souslik, density, endemic, distance sampling, fragmentation, Macedonia Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 2129; Downloads: 48 Full text (0,00 KB) |
10. The strongly distance-balanced property of the generalized Petersen graphsKlavdija Kutnar, Aleksander Malnič, Dragan Marušič, Štefko Miklavič, 2009, original scientific article Abstract: A graph ▫$X$▫ is said to be strongly distance-balanced whenever for any edge ▫$uv$▫ of ▫$X$▫ and any positive integer ▫$i$▫, the number of vertices at distance ▫$i$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$i + 1$▫ from ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices at distance ▫$i + 1$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$i$▫ from ▫$v$▫. It is proven that for any integers ▫$k \ge 2$▫ and ▫$n \ge k^2 + 4k + 1$▫, the generalized Petersen graph GP▫$(n, k)$▫ is not strongly distance-balanced. Found in: ključnih besedah Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu Keywords: graph, strongy distance-balanced, generalized Petersen graph Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1524; Downloads: 74 Full text (0,00 KB) |