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1.
Bone loss in the lower leg during 35 days of bed rest is predominantly from the cortical compartment
Joern Rittweger, Boštjan Šimunič, Giancarlo Bilancio, Natale Gaspare De Santo, Massimo Cirillo, Gianni Biolo, Rado Pišot, Ola Eiken, Igor B. Mekjavić, Marco Narici, 2009, original scientific article

Abstract: Immobilization-induced bone loss is usually greater in the epiphyses than in the diaphyses. The larger fraction of trabecular bone in the epiphyses than in the diaphyses offers an intuitive explanation to account for this phenomenon. However, recent evidence contradicts this notion and suggests that immobilization-induced bone loss from the distal tibia epiphysis is mainly from the cortical compartment. The aim of this study was to establish whether this pattern of bone loss was a general rule during immobilization. Wemonitored various skeletal sites with different tissue composition during 5 weeks of immobilization. Ten healthy male volunteers with mean age of 24.3 years (SD 2.6 years) underwent strict horizontal bed rest. Bone scans were obtained during baseline data collection, at the end of bed rest and after 14 days of recovery by peripheral Quantitative Computed Tomography (pQCT). Sectional images were obtained from the distal tibia epiphysis (at 4% of the tibia's length), from the diaphysis (at 38%), from the proximal metaphysis (at 93%) and from the proximal epiphysis (at 98%), as well as from the distal femur epiphysis (at 4% of the femur's length) and from the patella. Relative bone losses were largest at the patella, where they amounted to - 3.2% (SD 1.8%, p < 0.001) of the baseline values, and smallest at the tibia diaphysis, where they amounted to - 0.7% (SD 1.0%, p = 0.019). The relative losses were generally larger from cortical than from trabecular compartments (p = 0.004), and whilst all skeletal sites depicted such cortical losses, substantial trabecular losses were found only from the proximal tibia epiphysis. Results confirm that the differential losses from the various skeletal sites cannot be explained on the basis of trabecular vs. cortical tissue composition differences, but that endocortical circumference can account for the different amounts of bone loss in the tibia. The present study therefore supports the suggestion of the subendocortical layer as a transitional zone, which can readily be transformed into trabecular bone in response to immobilization. The latter will lead to cortical thinning, a factor that has been associated with the risk of fracture and with osteoarthritis.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...space flight, simulated microgravity, osteoporosis, exercise, pQCT, ...
Keywords: space flight, simulated microgravity, osteoporosis, exercise, pQCT
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 2041; Downloads: 52
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

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Effects of whole-body cryotherapy on recovery after hamstring damaging exercise
Borut Fonda, Nejc Šarabon, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on biochemical, pain, and performance parameters during the 5-day recovery period after damaging exercise for hamstrings. Participants completed a bout of damaging exercise for the hamstring muscles on two separate occasions (control and experimental condition) separated by 10 weeks. During the control condition, subjects received no treatment after the damaging exercise. The experimental condition consisted of WBC everyday during the recovery period. WBC included single 3-min daily exposures to low temperatures (-140 to -195 °C) in the cryo-cabin. During the recovery period, subjects were tested for biochemical markers, perceived pain sensation, and physical performance (squat jump, counter movement jump, maximal isometric torque production, and maximally explosive isometric torque production). Majority of the observed variables showed statistically significant time effects (P < 0.05) in control group, which indicates the presence of muscle damage. Significant interaction between the control and WBC condition was evident for the rate of torque development (P < 0.05). Pain measures substantially differed between the WBC and the control condition after the exercise. Results of this study are not completely supportive of the use of WBC for recovery enhancement after strenuous training
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: Zadetek v naslovu
Keywords: whole-body cryotherapy, damaging exercise, hamstring muscles, recovery
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 2127; Downloads: 35
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

4.
Skeletal muscle oxidative function in vivo and ex vivo in athletes with marked hypertrophy from resistance training
Desy Salvadego, R. Domenis, Stefano Lazzer, Simone Porcelli, Joern Rittweger, Giovanna Rizzo, I. Mavelli, Boštjan Šimunič, Rado Pišot, Bruno Grassi, 2013, original scientific article

Abstract: Oxidative function during exercise was evaluated in 11 young athletes with marked skeletal muscle hypertrophy induced by long-term resistance training (RTA, body mass 102.67.3 kg, meanSD) and 11 controls (CTRL, body mass 77.86.0). Pulmonary O2 uptake (V'O2) and vastus lateralis muscle fractional O2 extraction (by near-infrared spectroscopy) were determined during an incremental cycle ergometer (CE) and one-leg knee-extension (KE) exercise. Mitochondrial respiration was evaluated ex vivo by high-resolution respirometry in permeabilized vastus lateralis fibers obtained by biopsy. Quadriceps femoris muscle cross sectional area, volume (determined by magnetic resonance imaging) and strength were greater in RTA vs. CTRL (by ~40%, ~33% and ~20%, respectively). V'O2peak during CE was higher in RTA vs. CTRL (4.050.64 L min-1 vs. 3.560.30); no difference between groups was observed during KE. The O2 cost of CE exercise was not different between groups. When divided per muscle mass (for CE) or quadriceps muscle mass (for KE) V'O2peak was lower (by 15-20%) in RTA vs. CTRL. Vastus lateralis fractional O2 extraction was lower in RTA vs. CTRL at all work rates, both during CE and KE. RTA had higher ADP-stimulated mitochondrial respiration (56.723.7 pmolO2s-1mg-1 ww) vs. CTRL (35.710.2), and a tighter coupling of oxidative phosphorylation. In RTA the greater muscle mass and maximal force, and the enhanced mitochondrial respiration seem to compensate for the hypertrophy-induced impaired peripheral O2 diffusion. The net results are an enhanced whole body oxidative function at peak exercise, and unchanged efficiency and O2 cost at submaximal exercise, despite a much greater body mass
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Oxidative function during exercise was evaluated in 11 young athletes with...
Keywords: skeletal muscle, hypertrophy, mitochondrial respiration, oxidative metabolism, exercise
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 2054; Downloads: 58
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

5.
FES training in aging
Helmut Kern, Stefan Loefler, Christian Hofer, Michael Vogelauer, Samantha Burggraf, Martina Grim-Stieger, Jan Cvecka, Dušan Hamar, Nejc Šarabon, Feliciano Protasi, Antonio Musarň, Marco Sandri, Katia Rossini, Ugo Carraro, Sandra Zampieri, 2012, original scientific article

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...FES, exercise training, aging, functional analyses, mobility, muscle fiber...
Keywords: FES, exercise training, aging, functional analyses, mobility, muscle fiber size
Published: 15.10.2013; Views: 1808; Downloads: 23
URL Full text (0,00 KB)
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6.
Peak power output test on a rowing ergometer - a methodological study
Goran Marković, Pavle Mikulić, Nejc Šarabon, Boris Metikoš, 2015, original scientific article

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...celega telesa, mišična moč, zanesljivost, veljavnost, whole-body exercise, muscle power, reliability, validity, ...
Keywords: vadba celega telesa, mišična moč, zanesljivost, veljavnost, whole-body exercise, muscle power, reliability, validity
Published: 15.10.2015; Views: 2597; Downloads: 52
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

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A novel device to preserve physical activities of daily living in healthy older people
Stefan Loefler, Nejc Šarabon, Helmut Kern, Wolfram Haslinger, Lisa Müller, Christian Raschner, 2015, original scientific article

Abstract: Objective: To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance as crucial part of activities of daily living in healthy older adults. Design: RCT. Setting: Laboratory. Participants: 39 subjects (M = 71.8 years, range: 61%89 years). Intervention: Task oriented visual feedback balance training. Primary outcome measure: Timed up & go (TUG). Secondary outcome measures: Chair stand test (CST), self-paced walk test, maximum isometric torque, quiet stand posturography and dynamic balance (DB). Results: Post intervention comparison of the treatment group (TG) and control group (CG) showed better TUG (p < .01), CST (p < .001) and DB (p < .025) for the TG. Pre%post intervention comparison of the TG showed better clinically relevant outcomes in TUG (p < .001), CST (p < .001) and DB (p < .001). Conclusion: Active driven visual feedback balance training is effective in improving functional performance and dynamic balance in older adults.
Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...Objective: To determine the effectiveness of exercise in improving sensorimotor function and functional performance...
Keywords: posturalno ravnotežje, gibalna terapija, staranje, funkcionalna sposobnost, postural balance, exercise therapy, ageing, functional performance
Published: 03.04.2017; Views: 811; Downloads: 111
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

10.
Effects of feedback-based balance and core resistance training vs. Pilates training on balance and muscle function in older women
Goran Marković, Nejc Šarabon, Zrinka Greblo, Valerija Križanić, 2015, original scientific article

Found in: ključnih besedah
Summary of found: ...trening, postural control, muscle strength, physical performance, exercise training, ...
Keywords: posturalni nadzor, mišična jakost, gibalna zmogljivost, vadba, trening, postural control, muscle strength, physical performance, exercise training
Published: 03.04.2017; Views: 978; Downloads: 49
URL Full text (0,00 KB)

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