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Metodološki pristup analizi dalmatinskoga gradskog plemstva : primjer analize trogirskoga plemstva od 13. stoljeća do kraja prve austrijske uprave (1805.)
Mladen Andreis, 2008, pregledni znanstveni članek

Opis: Data from Heyer von Rosenfeld's Wappenbuch des Königreichs Dalmatien (Heraldryof the Kingdom of Dalmatia) is often quoted in encyclopedic biographical reference books, such as the Croatian Register of Nobility and the Croatian Biographical Lexicon. However, a thorough analysis of Tragurin nobility revealed that approximately two thirds of the kindred (86 out of 130)that Ronsenfeld's heraldry lists among Tragurin nobility in fact were not actually members. The findings presented in the article were reached through the application of genealogical analysis of a database compiled based on minutes of municipal councils, municipal archives, family archives, municipal registers, and other sources; using appropriate computer applications members of the urban nobility in the period from the 13th century through 1805 were authenticated. Within the examined six centuries, two periods required unique methodological approaches. The main problem when analyzing the medieval period lies in the identification of family membership of individuals frequently recorded only with their personal and their fathers' names (in the 13th and 14th centuries most family names were not formed yet). An additional problem characterizing the period preceding the closure of councils (up to the first half of the 14th century) is the identification of the town councilor. Given the increasing frequency of conferring noble titles since the 16th century onwards and the development of new nobility in the restored communes of Skradin and Nin, archival sources reveal that some individuals would be addressed as nobile or conte while no additional information on what defined their status can be found. Some noblemen permanently lived in specific towns; however, their titles as nobles did not derive from their affiliation with the town council. In addition, noblemen addressed as conte could be granted a national nobility status while also being members of the town councils in the towns where they lived as well as in other towns. Often the noble title would be mentioned only to be polite. Therefore, the origin of noble titles that the sources frequently do not mention needs to be determined. The possible applications of computer-based methods in the analysis of a genealogical database are shown based on the analysis of nuptial matters, which represents a significant parameter of the nobility as an isolated class. Using this method the marriages among nobility members through centuries were analyzed, taking into consideration their class status (nobility, citizenry) and noble origins. In addition, quantitative indicators of endogamy as a measure of closeness of separate isolates were examined.
Ključne besede: plemstvo, mesta, genealoška metoda, Trogir, Dalmacija
Objavljeno v RUP: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 2278; Prenosov: 11
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Smještaj gradskog plemstva u dalmatinskim gradovima srednjeg vijeka
Irena Benyovsky, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: During the Middle Ages the distribution of urban plots and erection of buildings depended on the societal structures that participated in the construction of the town and on general processes characterizing this period. The right to own property and the size of the property were among the most important status symbols of the urban nobility, and thus patrimony and nobility were closely interrelated. Noble families strived for close relations among family members, which is why new houses of members of the same family would be built in close proximity to the first house. The accumulation of real estate in the town (i.e., several plots of land with buildings or without them) enabled subsequent functional or architectural changes to defined zones within the town. Therefore, numerous property-legal relations in this framework can be found in medieval Dalmatian towns, as is revealed by the case of Trogir and preliminary research findings in Dubrovnik and Zadar.
Ključne besede: plemstvo, mesta, mestno plemstvo, Dalmacija, srednji vek, socialna topografija
Objavljeno v RUP: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 3342; Prenosov: 30
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Obitelj dalmatinskog plemstva od 12. do 14. stoljeća
Zrinka Nikolić Jakus, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: In the period from the twelfth until the fourteenth century the Dalmatian noble family gradually was established as a patrilineal lineage. In the article this process is studied especially on the example of the three biggest Dalmatian cities - Zadar, Trogir, and Split. The changes first appearedin Zadar. They appeared relatively late in the terminology connected with family - at the end of the thirteenth century - and they are best seen in the change of status of daughters in relations to family inheritance. Although by Roman law they had rights to equal shares in the whole property - including estates and houses - just the same as their brothers, during the thirteenth century the right of inheritance after the death of the parents was gradually replaced by a pay-off of shares of inheritance in the dowry at the time of marriage. First, the payment of inheritance in money in the dowry was preferred when girls married foreigners from distant cities. This new custom appeared first in Zadar because it had a more developed economy, making monetary payments easier. The practice of giving estates in dowries was retained longer in Trogir and Split. Patronage rights were never denied to female descendants. Finally, in fourteenth-century Zadar, payment of dowries in cash became a way to deny sisters an equal share in inheritance with brothers, because dowries fell short of equal shares of the inheritance. That patrilineal lineage was getting stronger is also illustrated by the adoption of family names. It is significant that family names that derived from the name of ancestors appeared later, while the first family names derived from nicknames. In this process Zadar was also ahead of other cities. In spite of the attenuated process of the establishment of the patrilineal family, the importance of cognatic and affinial ties were continuously recognised in private and public life whether in legal attempts to prevent the uniting of cousins in governmental bodies or in the obligation of cognates to take part in the defense of family honor and feuds. In this way, both types of family - cognatic and agnatic - had an important role in the circles of Dalmatian nobility.
Ključne besede: plemstvo, mesta, mestno plemstvo, Dalmacija, Zadar, Trogir, Split, družina, srednji vek
Objavljeno v RUP: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 3204; Prenosov: 30
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Grobnice v nekdanji cerkvi sv. Katarine v Piranu
Mitja Guštin, Andrej Preložnik, Maša Sakara Sučević, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek

Opis: Conservational research of the former church of St. Catherine in the present day Minorite Monastery of St. Francis in Piran has been performed in the scope of the Institute for Mediterranean Heritage SRC of the University of Primorska. In the district of Piran ascending from the mandrachio along the present day Bolniška street traces of Roman settlement have been found. Several "extra-muros" churches have been built there during the 13th and 14th centuries, then a special importance was assigned to the area with the erection of the Franciscan Monastery. The latter was supposedly built right next to the church of St. Catherine, though this has not (previously) been proven by any substantial evidence or written documents. Some elements like the semi-circular apse and the pointed-arch windows testify that the building itself is very old, but has been remodeled several times since its erection. The church has served as a burial ground where some Piran families - the Furegons are mentioned in written sources - would bury their deceased. It has also served as the seat of the brotherhood bearing the same name. The church was probably abolished in the beginning of the 19th century and was later relinquished to the municipality and attached to the neighbouring school building. The archaeological research mentioned above took place in 2003 and 2006, then in the summer and autumn of 2009 the greater part of the former church has been studied systematically. Three tombs were found within the remains of the brick pavement, which are in the central focus of the present article. The two tombs at the north wall have been damaged and emptied during the remodelling that took place in the "school" period. They were built simultaneously and had a common intermediate wall and a frame, which might have been used and restored at a later date. The covers were only preserved to a lesser extent. The breaking wheel - the symbol of St. Catherine of Alexandria - was carved in the plate of the west tomb, so we assumed that we are dealing with the tomb of the brotherhood bearing her name. The eastern tomb was decorated with a coat of arms attributed to the Furegon family of Piran and can also be associated with the related, yet earlier De Preto family. The carving of the coat of arms had partially erased an older inscription, which is probably funerary as well. The central tomb was found intact, though a part of its cover was cracked because of the material mounded on top of it. The same occurrence had happened before - the cover was already partially replaced in the 17th century. The cover, composed of two parts, thus contains two epitaphs dedicated to the family of Peter De Preta (from 1539) and Jacob de Preta (from 1645). Between the tombs and the church walls "trench graves" were dug into the church floor, where bones from the cemetery in front of the church and also some deceased were buried. Like the grave at the south wall of the central tomb, these trenches are younger then the tombs. The layer of bones, buried in the old semi-circled presbytery before it was torn down and walled up, however, is older. The oldest grave lies at the foundation of the wall running in north-east direction under the former church of St. Catherine, which was a part of some older, perhaps even Roman building. The wall and the grave were traversed during the building of the north church wall. Archaeological findings concerning the construction of tombs along with some small finds and osteological material offer a firm basis for multidisciplinary research, which, supplemented with the analysis of epigraphic and written sources, could illuminate the relationship of the local community towards death and burial from numerous aspects. At the same time, the several tombs still preserved or rediscovered call for a systematic treatise, which would improve our understanding of the development of this form of burial in the wider area of Istria and the North Adriatic coast during the late medieval and early modern times.
Ključne besede: plemstvo, grobnice, epitafi, grbi, 16./, arheološke ostaline
Objavljeno v RUP: 10.07.2015; Ogledov: 3239; Prenosov: 31
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