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4. Distance-balanced graphs: Symmetry conditionsKlavdija Kutnar, Aleksander Malnič, Dragan Marušič, Štefko Miklavič, 2006, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A graph ▫$X$▫ is said to be distance-balanced if for any edge ▫$uv$▫ of ▫$X$▫, the number of vertices closer to ▫$u$▫ than to ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices closer to ▫$v$▫ than to ▫$u$▫. A graph ▫$X$▫ is said to be strongly distance-balanced if for any edge ▫$uv$▫ of ▫$X$▫ and any integer ▫$k$▫, the number of vertices at distance ▫$k$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$k+1$▫ from ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices at distance ▫$k+1$▫ from ▫$u$▫ and at distance ▫$k$▫ from ▫$v$▫. Exploring the connection between symmetry properties of graphs and the metric property of being (strongly) distance-balanced is the main theme of this article. That a vertex-transitive graph is necessarily strongly distance-balanced and thus also distance-balanced is an easy observation. With only a slight relaxation of the transitivity condition, the situation changes drastically: there are infinite families of semisymmetric graphs (that is, graphs which are edge-transitive, but not vertex-transitive) which are distance-balanced, but there are also infinite families of semisymmetric graphs which are not distance-balanced. Results on the distance-balanced property in product graphs prove helpful in obtaining these constructions. Finally, a complete classification of strongly distance-balanced graphs is given for the following infinite families of generalized Petersen graphs: GP▫$(n,2)$▫, GP▫$(5k+1,k)$▫, GP▫$(3k 3,k)$▫, and GP▫$(2k+2,k)$▫. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Ključne besede: graph theory, graph, distance-balanced graphs, vertex-transitive, semysimmetric, generalized Petersen graph Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 2056; Prenosov: 59 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |
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6. A complete classification of cubic symmetric graphs of girth 6Klavdija Kutnar, Dragan Marušič, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A complete classification of cubic symmetric graphs of girth 6 is given. It is shown that with the exception of the Heawood graph, the Moebius-Kantor graph, the Pappus graph, and the Desargues graph, a cubic symmetric graph ▫$X$▫ of girth 6 is a normal Cayley graph of a generalized dihedral group; in particular, (i) ▫$X$▫ is 2-regular if and only if it is isomorphic to a so-called ▫$I_k^n$▫-path, a graph of order either ▫$n^2/2$▫ or ▫$n^2/6$▫, which is characterized by the fact that its quotient relative to a certain semiregular automorphism is a path. (ii) ▫$X$▫ is 1-regular if and only if there exists an integer ▫$r$▫ with prime decomposition ▫$r=3^s p_1^{e_1} \dots p_t^{e_t} > 3$▫, where ▫$s \in \{0,1\}$▫, ▫$t \ge 1$▫, and ▫$p_i \equiv 1 \pmod{3}$▫, such that ▫$X$▫ is isomorphic either to a Cayley graph of a dihedral group ▫$D_{2r}$▫ of order ▫$2r$▫ or ▫$X$▫ is isomorphic to a certain ▫$\ZZ_r$▫-cover of one of the following graphs: the cube ▫$Q_3$▫, the Pappus graph or an ▫$I_k^n(t)$▫-path of order ▫$n^2/2$▫. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Ključne besede: graph theory, cubic graphs, symmetric graphs, ▫$s$▫-regular graphs, girth, consistent cycle Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 1939; Prenosov: 58 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |
7. On the connectivity of bipartite distance-balanced graphsŠtefko Miklavič, Primož Šparl, 2012, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A connected graph ▫$\varGamma$▫ is said to be distance-balanced whenever for any pair of adjacent vertices ▫$u,v$▫ of ▫$\varGamma$▫ the number of vertices closer to ▫$u$▫ than to ▫$v$▫ is equal to the number of vertices closer to ▫$v$▫ than to ▫$u$▫. In [K. Handa, Bipartite graphs with balanced ▫$(a,b)$▫-partitions, Ars Combin. 51 (1999), 113-119] Handa asked whether every bipartite distance-balanced graph, that is not a cycle, is 3-connected. In this paper the Handa question is answered in the negative. Moreover, we show that a minimal bipartite distance-balanced graph, that is not a cycle and is not 3-connected, has 18 vertices and is unique. In addition, we give a complete classification of non-3-connected bipartite distance-balanced graphs for which the minimal distance between two vertices in a 2-cut is three. All such graphs are regular and for each ▫$k \geq 3$▫ there exists an infinite family of such graphs which are ▫$k$▫-regular.Furthermore, we determine a number of structural properties that a bipartite distance-balanced graph, which is not 3-connected, must have. As an application, we give a positive answer to the Handa question for the subfamily of bipartite strongly distance-balanced graphs. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Ključne besede: graph theory, connected graphs, connectivity, distance-balanced graphs, bipartite graphs Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 1513; Prenosov: 56 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |
8. Large sets of long distance equienergetic graphsDragan Stevanović, 2009, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: Distance energy of a graph is a recent energy-type invariant, defined as the absolute deviation of the eigenvalues of the distance matrix of the graph. Two graphs of the same order are said to be distance equienergetic if they have equal distance energy, while they have distinct spectra of their distance matrices. Examples of pairs of distance equienergetic graphs appear in the literature already, but most of them have diameter two only. We describe here the distance spectrum of a special composition of regular graphs, and, as an application, we show that for any ▫$n \ge 3$▫, there exists a set of ▫$n + 1$▫ distance equienergetic graphs which have order ▫$6n$▫ and diameter ▫$n - 1$▫ each. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Ključne besede: graph theory, distance spectrum, distance energy, join, regular graphs Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 1612; Prenosov: 76 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |
9. On 2-fold covers of graphsYan-Quan Feng, Klavdija Kutnar, Aleksander Malnič, Dragan Marušič, 2008, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: A regular covering projection ▫$\wp : \widetilde{X} \to X$▫ of connected graphs is ▫$G$▫-admissible if ▫$G$▫ lifts along ▫$\wp$▫. Denote by ▫$\tilde{G}$▫ the lifted group, and let CT▫$(\wp)$▫ be the group of covering transformations. The projection is called ▫$G$▫-split whenever the extension ▫{$\mathrm{CT}}(\wp) \to \tilde{G} \to G$▫ splits. In this paper, split 2-covers are considered, with a particular emphasis given to cubic symmetric graphs. Supposing that ▫$G$▫ is transitive on ▫$X$▫, a ▫$G$▫-split cover is said to be ▫$G$▫-split-transitive if all complements ▫$\tilde{G} \cong G$▫ of CT▫$(\wp)$▫ within ▫$\tilde{G}$▫ are transitive on ▫$\widetilde{X}$▫; it is said to be ▫$G$▫-split-sectional whenever for each complement ▫$\tilde{G}$▫ there exists a ▫$\tilde{G}$▫-invariant section of ▫$\wp$▫; and it is called ▫$G$▫-split-mixed otherwise. It is shown, when ▫$G$▫ is an arc-transitive group, split-sectional and split-mixed 2-covers lead to canonical double covers. Split-transitive covers, however, are considerably more difficult to analyze. For cubic symmetric graphs split 2-cover are necessarily canonical double covers (that is, no ▫$G$▫-split-transitive 2-covers exist) when ▫$G$▫ is 1-regular or 4-regular. In all other cases, that is, if ▫$G$▫ is ▫$s$▫-regular, ▫$s=2,3$▫ or ▫$5$▫, a necessary and sufficient condition for the existence of a transitive complement ▫$\tilde{G}$▫ is given, and moreover, an infinite family of split-transitive 2-covers based on the alternating groups of the form ▫$A_{12k+10}$▫ is constructed. Finally, chains of consecutive 2-covers, along which an arc-transitive group ▫$G$▫ has successive lifts, are also considered. It is proved that in such a chain, at most two projections can be split. Further, it is shown that, in the context of cubic symmetric graphs, if exactly two of them are split, then one is split-transitive and the other one is either split-sectional or split-mixed. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Povzetek najdenega: ...other cases, that is, if ▫$G$▫ is ▫$s$▫-regular, ▫$s=2,3$▫ or ▫$5$▫, a necessary and sufficient... Ključne besede: graph theory, graphs, cubic graphs, symmetric graphs, ▫$s$▫-regular group, regular covering projection Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 1468; Prenosov: 14 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |
10. On bipartite Q-polynominal distance-regular graphsŠtefko Miklavič, 2007, izvirni znanstveni članek Opis: Let ▫$\Gamma$▫ denote a bipartite ▫$Q$▫-polynomial distance-regular graph with vertex set ▫$X$▫, diameter ▫$d \ge 3$▫ and valency ▫$k \ge 3$▫. Let ▫${\mathbb{R}}^X$▫ denote the vector space over ▫$\mathbb{R}$▫ consisting of column vectors with entries in ▫$\mathbb{r}$▫ and rows indexed by ▫$X$▫. For ▫$z \in X$▫, let ▫$\hat{z}$▫ denote the vector in ▫${\mathbb{R}}^X$▫ with a 1 in the ▫$z$▫-coordinate, and 0 in all other coordinates. Fix ▫$x,y \in X$▫ such that ▫$\partial(x,y)=2▫, where ▫$\partial$▫ denotes the path-length distance. For ▫$0 \le i,j \le d$▫ define ▫$w_{ij} = \sum\hat{z}$▫, where the sum is over all ▫$z \in X$▫ such that ▫$\partial(x,z) = i$▫ and ▫$\partial(y,z) = j▫$. We define ▫$W = \textrm{span} \{w_{ij}|0 \le i,j \le d\}$▫. In this paper we consider the space ▫$MW = \textrm{span} \{mw |m \in M, w \in W \l\}$▫, where ▫$M$▫ is the Bose-Mesner algebra of ▫$\Gamma$▫. We observe that ▫$MW$▫ is the minimal ▫$A$▫-invariant subspace of ▫${\mathbb{R}}^X$▫ which contains ▫$W$▫, where ▫$A$▫ is the adjacency matrix of ▫$\Gamma$▫. We display a basis for ▫$MW$▫ that is orthogonal with respect to the dot product. We give the action of ▫$A$▫ on this basis. We show that the dimension of ▫$MW$▫ is ▫$3d-3$▫ if ▫$\Gamma$▫ is 2-homogeneous, ▫$3d-1$▫ if ▫$\Gamma$▫ is the antipodal quotient of the ▫$2d$▫-cube, and ▫$4d-4$▫ otherwise. We obtain our main result using Terwilliger's "balanced set" characterization of the ▫$Q$▫-polynomial property. Najdeno v: ključnih besedah Ključne besede: mathematics, graph theory, distance-regular graphs, ▫$Q$▫-polynominal property, Bose-Mesner algebra, balanced set characterization of the Q-polynominal property Objavljeno: 15.10.2013; Ogledov: 1727; Prenosov: 12 Polno besedilo (0,00 KB) |